ADV implemented reproductive health programs for youths in Lasta Wereda beginning 2002 and subsequently expanded its program in Silti, Hawssa and Addis Ababa . The programs focused on building the institutional and technical capacity of reproductive health clubs to engage the youth in reproductive and HIV/AIDS preventive education and treatment activities. By mobilizing and strengthening the clubs (both in and out of schools) they will in turn reach local youths as well as the wider community with RH information through different entertainment education methods, while at the same time supporting the clubs to initiate youth friendly, affordable and confidential RH services.
Overall, the RH programs successfully initiated and supported youth educational and recreational centers and reproductive health clubs (both in schools and out of schools) and reached many youths and community members with RH information in the two target areas. Besides, it facilitated reproductive health services to women and access to saving and credit services to women living in the target areas. The program has been successful in mobilizing and gaining the participation of girls in areas where there is a cultural bias against educating girls and particularly girls’ participation in public. Encouraging results obtained in mobilizing existing CBOs, in increasing the communities’ awareness in girls’ education, in imparting life skills among girls to be assertive of their rights, in empowering women economically, and in increasing the distribution of contraceptives in the its target areas.
2. Integrated population, Health and Environment (IPHE),
Addis Development Vision (ADV) had run projects aimed at improving population, Health and Environment knowledge skills and Practice, among youths. It specifically focused on building the technical and managerial capacities of PHE girls and farmers’ clubs to increase their knowledge, skills, and practice on population, health, and environment. The projects mobilized and coordinated clubs, associations, communities, and concerned government bodies that have stakes on PHE issues to create integrated community messages and cost efficiencies through joint planning and implementation. It operated in 12 kebeles’of the Silti Woreda in the Silte Zone of SNNPR The project targeted women, children, youth and disabled individuals with a focus on addressing high unmet need of the community due to a lack of access to family planning information and services, reducing harmful traditional practices (HTPs including reducing food insecurity caused by environmental degradation and soil erosion, and improving access to drinking water.
3. Women Promotion Program
The objective of the program was to promote women participation in decision-making and development through fostering freedom of associations in Silti Wereda. The program applied several approaches and strategies to achieve its objectives, these includes; promoting human rights education to foster freedom of associations, capacity building, building a participatory human rights culture and developing local links.
The program has helped promoting women and community participation in decision making, running for elections, involvement in leadership were enhanced through awareness creation in democracy and human rights, gender, and building the capacity of grassroots organizations such as women associations to contribute for the realization of democracy, respect for human rights and freedom of association. The human rights education designed in such a way that it can address issues of democratic electoral process at Wereda level and strengthening the basis of civil society dialogue and democratic discourse.
The other similar project of ADV aimed at improving the capacities of grassroots organizations/CBOs to design and implement programs that promote women’s well being and privileges, and enhance the awareness of non-state actors and the public on gender issues. To this effect coordinates short- training events on issues such as gender relations, gender analysis, organizational development, paralegal development and on legal support to victims of violence. Training of trainers for schoolteachers on gender relations designed to facilitate outreach to schools and communities.
4. OVC program
Addis Development Vision has been implementing a community based support program for orphans and vulnerable children within two kebeles’(districts)’(districts)’(districts)’(districts)’(districts)’ of Awassa city. The program aimed at improving the well-being and protection of orphan and vulnerable children and it has achieved the following results:
The early childhood development (ECD) program was successful in creating pre-school education opportunities to over 400 OVC in the target kebeles’(districts)’(districts)’(districts)’(districts)’(districts)’. OVC in the ECD, play and communicate with peers peacefully with care and watch by their teachers than to be exposed to very bad situations for lacking pre-school program because of the low economic performance of parents
The home visit program was also useful to follow up the situation of OVC at their homes and in encouraging guardians to work for the betterment of their children.
OVC targeted by the school support program spend weekends and other breaks in the project compound discussing on crosscutting issues in their own context, perform drama play, circus and engage on peer programs
OVC access medical care, parents are convinced to bring their children to the medical center after training on sanitation, nutrition, child rearing and right issues.
The program mobilized communities in support of OVC
5. CBR Program for Persons with Disabilities
The Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) project is an integrated project aimed at improving the quality of life of persons with various kinds of disabilities through creating opportunities for their full participation in the social, economic, political and cultural facets of the community.ADV has been implementing this project in Addis Ababa, Hawassa and Lalibela project areas. PwDs are affected by the same factors that cause poverty for others, but also added disadvantages. Children with disabilities face barriers to education; and youth with disabilities face barriers to training and decent work. Moreover, PwDs experience poorer levels of health than the general population and encounter various challenges to the enjoyment of their right to health. Most damaging of all, families and communities may think that PwDs are incapable of learning skills and working. In order to address the aforementioned challenges, ADV promoted CBR as a strategy to improve access to rehabilitation services for people with disabilities. The CBR was delivered in the form of five components.
5.1 Health Rehabilitation
Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) strategy supports PwDs in attaining their highest possible level of health, working across five key areas: health promotion, prevention, medical care, rehabilitation and assistive devices. In line with these focus areas; ADV makes aware PwDs and their family to have upper hand information about their health and to be active participants in achieving good health. PwDs and their family members also got access to health care and rehabilitation services close to their communities at affordable cost .They have been provided with assistive devices such as crutches, orthopedic shoes, CP chairs, wheel chairs and other walking aids, eye glasses and hearing aids. Under this component, Basic Rehabilitation exercises and Caring Skill Training approaches were used to improve the developmental, functional, and independent living of PwDs. Under the Basic Rehabilitation Exercise approach, trained CBR field workers conduct home based rehabilitation exercises by focusing on the detection of disability, early simulation, independence in self care/ mobility, communication and daily living activities. Through the Caring Skill training, skills and knowledge essential for caring their children in the absence of health promoters have been transferred to parents and caretakers by trained health promoters/CBR field workers in a home to home basis.
5.2 Educational/Vocational Skills Rehabilitation
Education is about all people being able to learn what they need and want throughout their lives, according to their potential. As CBR a strategy is to work with the education sector to help make education inclusive at all levels, and to facilitate access to education and lifelong learning for people with disabilities. The project creates access to learning and resources that meet the needs of PwDs. CwDs got the chance to play and learn alongside their peers. Schools are accessible and teachers are trained and good links with families and the community created and adequate water facilities and toilets have been availed. Moreover, through Vocational skills development program, youths and PwDs who lacks skills to be employed where embraced in short term trainings. Given the ever increasing number of the youth population both in urban and rural settings, the issue of employment opportunities that can absorb them in the economy be that in self-initiated schemes, private and/or government is an issue that has not been adequately attended. As a result, the youth do involve in illegal activities to sustain their lives. The project was aimed at improving the vocational and entrepreneurial skills of women, youth, and persons with disabilities by delivering salable skills that help them to be engaged in self directed job or employed in government or private firms. The project envisages socio-economic transformation of the youth, women and PwDs from a status of unemployment and vulnerability to a product of employability. It creates vocational opportunities to the disadvantaged community in Addis Ababa and Hawassa by developing flexible skills and trainings in consonance with the markets’ needs and demands and prepares them to face their economic challenges.
5.3 Livelihood Rehabilitation
A good majority of people with disabilities live in poverty. In countries like Ethiopia, PwDs have higher rates of unemployment compared to non-disabled people. Many disadvantaged youths are unemployed and lack marketable skills. The livelihood is part of CBR as it is essential to ensure youth and adults with disabilities to have access to training and working opportunities, in particular those at working age should be assisted and encouraged to develop skills and start or return to work. To curb this situation, youths with disabilities got access to skills development and working opportunities via microfinance services, self driven jobs and getting employed in private and government owned firms. The work of people with disabilities is recognized and valued by employers and community members.
5.4 Social Rehabilitation
Being actively included in the social life of one’s family and community is important for personal development. The opportunity to participate in social activities has a strong impact on a person’s identity, self esteem, quality of life and ultimately his/her social status in the community. Community awareness events and community conversation sessions were the major approaches the project employed in the awareness program. The awareness was mainly delivered by focusing on three settings: family and neighborhood settings, at school setting and wider community setting. The awareness programs primarily focus on entertaining the values of PwDs as members of their families and their ability to take social roles and responsibilities through contributing their skills and knowledge.
Empowerment is the final component of the Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) matrix and is a cross cutting theme. Unlike the first four components of the matrix(health, education, Livelihood and Social sectors) ,the empowerment component emphasizes on the importance of focusing on people with disabilities ,their families and communities.ADV through this project contribute to the empowerment process by promoting ,supporting and facilitating the active involvement of people with disabilities and their families in issues that affect their lives.ADV plays his own role in making persons with disabilities to come together ,form their own groups and associations ,and work towards addressing their common problems.
6. Health and Sanitation works
ADV has also been involved in health and sanitation programs. In this regard, it has undertaken a health and sanitation project in some selected Kebeles’ of Lasta Wereda of North Wello, Awassa, and Addis Ababa Cities. The objective of the project was to enable the community to have access to communal latrines and to raise the awareness of the community with regard to environmental sanitation. The project has constructed communal latrines and handed over to the target households and communities.
ADV has been implementing an elderly support project in Awassa and Lalibela town along with its other community based programs. The objective of the project was to improve the lives of older persons in these towns through a community based support program. The major activities of the project include improving the living environment of older persons through shelter, communal latrine and water construction and maintenance, medical support and income generation schemes.
Education, with linkages and synergies in its various projects and forms, is one among ADV’s areas of intervention in communities that it is supporting. During the years, ADV has systematically remained addressing education issues as an integral part of Inclusive and/or Special Needs education in the formal school system through preschools (ECCE) and primary schools; in adult literacy (FAL); in the provision of training to primary school teachers; supporting girls (to regularly attend school); providing supplementary reading materials to target schools; strengthening in-school students’ clubs etc.
All ADV interventions in education have been in line with government priorities in the education sector and are also focused so as to fill in gaps in the general education sub-sector. ADV’s intervention in the education sector, in the general education sub-sector in particular, aim at creating opportunities to the disadvantaged, marginalized and/or underserved members of the community in four geographic locations of its operation: Addis Ababa City Administration (Kirkos and Nefas Silk Lafto sub-cities), Amhara (Lasta and Lalibela Woreda), SNNPRS (Hawasa town and Siltie Woreda). In the pages that follow, a brief overview of ADV’s activities in the Education sector is highlighted.
7.1 Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
Research has consistently shown that investing in quality early learning programs is one of the most effective ways to improve children’s success in school. In fact the gains tend to be the highest when early childhood investments target the youngest and most disadvantaged groups. Cognizant of this fact ADV during the years supported efforts to ensure that children with special needs are reached with relevant and appropriate learning opportunities of good quality.
ADV widely recognizes the fact that creating access to educational opportunities is an effective means for reducing vulnerability and in particular that of CwDs. With this end in view, ADV implemented ECCE in Addis Ababa in 3 target Woredas of two sub-cities namely Nefas-Silk Lafto and Kirkos; and Hawasa town, SNNPR.
In the ECCE children with different types of disabilities are served with children engaged in activities that contribute to their social, physical, emotional, cognitive and physical development. Apart from the service the children receive, other activities such as awareness raising sessions have also been conducted to parents on matters that relate to the importance of family planning, nutrition, child upbringing, on how to attend to the different needs of CwDs, the value of inclusive education etc
To ensure ownership and support, ADV, using trainings and consultative meetings as key entry points, has done a lot to involve education personnel, teachers and the community to address disability related issues and in support of the ongoing activities.
When children receive good care and learning opportunities in their early years, they have a better chance to grow up healthy, perform well in school, and to reach their full potential in later life. To deepen facilitators’ professional/technical knowledge and skills on disability, identification of CwDs, use of appropriate and need based instructional methods; ECCE facilitators are given refresher and on-the-job trainings. The end result of the capacity development of the facilitators is to ensure that these children, by the time they join the first cycle of the formal school system, pay attention better, catch on faster; are more engaged and less shy; interact with their classmates and enjoy themselves more. The ECCE applies child-centered active learning methodology with facilitators/teachers trained in preschool teaching methods and centers equipped with indoor and outdoor play materials.
In its ECCE intervention ADV has exercised and also advocated that beginning early, building knowledge and skills to adopt protective behaviors and reduce vulnerabilities have a pay off at a later stage. The project has also made attempts to introduce better use of ICTs, public entertainment and awareness campaigns to deliver socially targeted ECCE and disability sensitive messages.
ADV is widely acknowledged for its quality training in the preschool teaching methods for ECCE facilitators both by the Ministry of Education (Special Needs Education Department), International and indigenous NGOs. Same holds true to the materials it produces for such centers, both indoor and outdoor.
7.2 Primary Education
ADV, to promote inclusive education, works in schools in Addis Ababa, in Hawasa town, and in Lalibela. Those children with special needs in each of these schools receive support from their teachers, the school community and parents. The whole purpose of the intervention in these schools is to ensure that children with special needs, given the opportunity, have both the potential to learn like anyone child of their age and be productive members of the society.
When working to the above end, ADV has been involved in a wide variety of activities. Among others these include training teachers in special needs education that ranges all the way from the identification of these children to adopting instructional/teaching methods that suit their needs. Added to this are tailored trainings to education personnel at various levels (Education Office Heads, school directors, PTA and SMC members, parents/guardians/caretakers of CwDs, and the community.
Complemented by appropriate learning and teaching materials and aids, teachers’ confidence and experience in interactive and participatory learning methodologies has shown commendable results in the academic performance of those who benefitted from the system. Notable good examples are 2 students from Lalibela: one of them, blind, who had sat for a tertiary education examination in May 2014, said “I am a person brought to this stage with support from ADV, upon joining the university I will study Law to stand at the side of C/PwDs. The other who had been kept hidden at home for solid 7 years on bed with no opportunity to get God given sunlight also sat for a grade 10 pre college qualifying examination has shared the same thought the other had.
ADV has practice proven experiences in promoting inclusive education training teachers (both pre and in-service/on-the-job practical trainings); strengthening resource centers (providing materials like shelves, supplementary books, tables and chairs to target schools); establishing and strengthening health/disability clubs; training parents; organizing awareness raising sessions to stakeholders at various levels and supporting cluster school centers.
As part of the effort to support inclusive education in the primary schools of the targeted Woreda, ADV has also provided individualized support to children/youth with disabilities. These include covering such expenses as transport, reading fee for blind students, and provision of school uniforms to the most needy. Some noteworthy activities in promoting inclusive education in the school system are:
Constructed ramps, constructed/modified toilets for use by CwDs
Maintained classrooms to have better light
Trained teachers on Braille writing and reading, sign language; and other education personnel (from the Woreda Education offices) and school directors.
Organized supplementary classes for slow learners (low achieving students) with priority given to female students.
Established a steering committee consisting 8 members drawn from different local government sector offices and community members.
Established disability resource centers in the schools and equipped the centers with the necessary teaching/learning materials.
Equipped targeted schools with mini-media materials/equipments for use by school disability/health clubs so as to create awareness about disability for the school community.
Modified toilets for use by CwDs.
Decreased dropouts in intervention schools.
Increased number of children accessing, attending and completing primary schools in a safe and disability friendly learning environment.
7.3 Girls Education
Across nations girls’ education is receiving increased attention from time to time and this is for a wide variety of reasons: educated girls tend to marry later; will have fewer children, healthier pregnancies and safe deliveries; and literate mothers are more likely to send their children to school than the illiterate ones.
When girl children attend school, parents’ attitudes towards their daughters shift, they see them as active individuals capable of learning and directing their own lives and futures. Therefore making school a safer and friendlier place for girls to learn and study, and training parents in skilful parenting is widely believed to encourage them support their daughter’s schooling.
Accordingly ADV’s girls’ power education intervention aimed at empowering girls and young women to have adequate knowledge and skills to shape their own lives. ADV through its Lalibela and Siliti Project Offices has been striving to realize the benefits gained by educating girls. As such its focus is to ensure that girls and young women enroll and complete primary education, increase girls and communities awareness on the importance of regularly attending primary and post primary education and beyond. To meet its objective the girls’ power education developed a three level intervention strategy at Individual, Institutional, and Civil society level.
At Individual level girl/women students in grades 5 to 8 received supplementary lessons in mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics, and English language. Furthermore, girls/young women from resource poor families have also received school supplies (exercise books, ball point pens, pencils etc)
In many of the target primary schools girls/young women enrollment increased and one factor that might have contributed, though it remains to be seen, is a growing parental and community awareness on the issue. To ensure that school going girl/young women do not dropout on grounds of early and/or unwanted marriage a “secret information box” was set aside to pass on related matters to the school. Using this mechanism a good number of girls have been prevented from discontinuing school.
At Institutional level, target primary schools benefitted from ICT equipment for their centers. These include computers, radios, television sets, and 4GB flash/memory sticks. The Woreda Education Office has also received educational and ICT material support (a computer with a printer and toner, a projector, a camera, a 4GB flash/memory stick, and stationery). Moreover, other target schools have also benefitted from hand washing facilities and latrines constructed for girls’ use.
At Civil society level several consultative meetings were held with relevant government sector offices regarding the ongoing activities, other pertinent issues in the process and the challenges encountered.
7.4 Integrated Functional Adult Literacy (IFAL)
Literacy is a component of basic education that involves a set of skills or competencies such as reading, writing, and numeracy/counting. ADV has FAL as one among the components in a project titled “Economic and Social Empowerment of Youth and Women” and is implemented in Siltie Zone, SNNPR. Like in other project activities, FAL too had a buy-in from the relevant local government sector offices and per the agreed upon plan it was implemented in selected Kebeles targeting women association members and in particular those who were members of SACCO group.
These women attend lessons twice a week with focus on basic literacy and numeracy. The lessons were facilitated by teachers from nearby formal schools, health extension workers (HEW) and development agents (DAs) deployed in the Kebele. In order to ensure the continuity of the activity, refresher trainings and consultation meetings have been organized and held with the principal stakeholders (Woreda Education, Health, and Rural Development Offices; Kebele Administrators; Directors and teachers from the nearby schools; community leaders; IGA leaders) as these are believed to keep the ongoing ‘system’ in place moving (sustain) even after the life of the project.
7.5. Non-formal and Adult Education
ADV works to empower disadvantaged persons to attain equal and full participation in society and to have improved lives by accessing basic health, education, and livelihood opportunities. Currently it is operating early childhood education both organized and non-organized and non-formal programs for 1597 children. In areas where ADV is operational, the people are confronted with health problems, lack of basic services like education and health.
The magnitude of the problem, combined with limited resources, limited training institutions that can accommodate special needs, makes it extremely difficult for many disadvantaged persons to get knowledge and skills from the formal education sector. This is the reason why ADV took non-formal education and training as a more effective option.
7.6 . Adult training centers
Since its inception, ADV developed knowledge, skills, and attitudes for self-employment business creation of youngsters. ADV’s Adult training centers (Skills centers) on an average trains about 70 every year. So far, ADV trained over 700 youngsters in different trades for self- directed jobs in, Addis Ababa, Sidama, and North Wello. Recently it is also organizing short- term trainings that help the family economy of disadvantaged families. The trainings emphasized competences and need-based courses in various trades or multi skills. Illiterate adults who apply for the training are given literacy classes that is directed towards training in specific area and consequently to self-employment possibilities.
8. Capacity building
ADV is building the capacity of community-initiated preschools organized and non- organized through non-formal trainings. ADV is making use of its one well-established early childhood education center as a resource and training center for professional and non- professionals working with children 0-8. It is disseminating its learning and resource materials to community initiated and some learning institutions. ADV also works with local school- teachers in inclusive education in creating educational opportunities for out of schoolchildren.
9. Sponsorship Program
ADV financially supports adults who are disabled and socially disadvantaged to attend education or trainings in high schools or colleges or learn trades from formal and non- formal settings. The sponsorship program has supported over 100 adults.
10. Livelihood promotion
The overall goal of this project is aimed at improving the economic and social status of youths and women in selected operational areas of ADV so as to increase youth’s school retention and economic wellbeing. The main issue that the project intended to address is strengthening the economic well being of youths and women and at the same time increasing the retention and school enrollment rates of students . Abject poverty is the primary cause for increasing the school dropout rate in the community schools. The target areas are characterized by higher school dropout rates, persistent poverty and higher unemployment rate. Due to these factors, many people in the community members cannot afford to pay the monthly school fees and students are obliged to be engaged exclusively on daily labor to meet their families’ economic needs.
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